Timeline – Overview – 700 B.C.-Now

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA AND THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA INCLUDING EVENTS IN US-SAUDI RELATIONS

  • 700s B.C. Founding of Dumat al-Jandal, capital of the earliest known Arabian state.
  • 200s B.C.-100s A.D. Nabataean Kingdom of Petra (in present-day Jordan) rules most of northwestern Arabia, including Mada’in Salih, northwest of Madinah.
  • 200s A.D. Arabian Queen Zenobiya from Damascus fails to conquer Dumat al-Jandal.
  • 524 Invading Yemeni King Zu Nawas massacres Christian citizens of al-Ukhdud in Najran for refusing to convert to Judaism
  • 622 The Hijrah, the migration of the Prophet Muhammed and his followers from Makkah (Mecca) to al-Madinah (Medina), September 13-22. September 13 becomes the first day of the Muslim lunar calendar, called the Hijrya calendar, and is considered the beginning of the Islamic age.
  • 622-629 The original structure of the Prophet’s Mosque is built in al-Madinah.
  • 638 The original structure of the Haram Mosque is built in Maddah around the Ka’bah.
  • 661-750 The Muslim Calphate is moved from Makkah to Damascus, marking the beginning of the Umayyad Capiphate.
  • 1517 Ottoman suzerainty is established in the Hijaz.
  • 1550 Ottoman suzerainty is established in al-Hasa.
  • 1670 Ottomans are driven out of al-Hasa
  • 1744 Amir Muhammad ibn Saud becomes a patrol of the reform movement of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and begins expanding the first Saudi state under the (Wahhabi) banner of Tawhid (Islamic monotheism).
  • 1818 Ibrahim Pasha and an Egyptian Army capture the Saudi capital at Dir’iyyah.
  • 1824 Amir Turki ibn Abdallah reestablishes Saudi rule in Najd and moves the capital to Riyadh.
  • 1871 Ottomans retake al-Hasa.
  • 1891 The rival House of Rashid from al-Ha’il drives the Al Saud from power.
  • 1902 Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman Al Sud (Ibn Saud) recaptures Riyadh.
  • 1912 Abd al-Aziz assumes the title of Sultan of Najd.
  • 1913 Abd al-Aziz retakes al-Hasa.
  • c.1922 Umm al-Qura newspaper established in the Hijaz. Under the al-Saud regime it later becomes the official gazette.
  • 1926 Abd al-Aziz takes al-Hijaz and assumes title King of the Hijaz and Sultan of Najd.
  • 1927 [May 20] Treaty of Jeddah signed between King Abdul Aziz and the United Kingdom
  • 1929 The Battle of Sabilla. The last Bedouin battle in history, in which King Abd al-Aziz defeats insurgent elements of his tribal army, the Ikhwan, which he had demobilized and settled in farming communities. The battle marks the beginning of a new domestic policy summed up as “modernization without secularization.”
  • 1930 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is created, the first ministry under the King.
  • 1931 The United States recognizes the government of King Abdul Aziz.
  • 1932 King Abd al-Aziz creates the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • 1932 The Ministry of Finance and National Economy is created, the second Saudi ministry.
  • 1934 The oldest extant Saudi newspaper, “Al-Bilad” (“The Country”), is established in Jeddah.
  • 1938 Oil is first produced in commercial quantities
  • 1945 Saudi Arabia is a founding member of the United Nations and signatory to the UN Charter.
  • 1945 Saudi Arabia is a founding member of the Arab League (Cairo).
  • 1948 Saudi radio is inaugurated
  • 1950s-present Massive expansion and renovation of the two holy mosques in Makkah and al-Madinah to accomodate the millions of pilgrims who visit the sites each year.
  • 1950 The Ministry of Health is established.
  • 1952 The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) is established as the country’s central bank, leading to the issuing of Saudi Arabia’s first paper currency.
  • 1953 King Abd al-Aziz dies and is succeeded by his son Saud.
  • 1960 Saudi Arabia is a founding member of OPEC (Sep 10-14, 1960; in effect Jan 1961).
  • 1962 King Saud abdicates and is succeeded by his brother Faysal.
  • 1962 Saudi Arabia is a founding member of the Muslim World League (Jeddah).
  • 1963 Ministry of Information is created.
  • 1965 National television is inaugurated.
  • 1974 The Treaty of Jeddah reached between Saudi Arabia and the UAE intending to resolve the border question, required subsequent ratification.
  • 1975 King Faysal is killed by a deranged nephew, Faysal Bin-Musaid Bin-Abd-al-Aziz, and is succeeded by his brother Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz. Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud is named Crown Prince.
  • 1979 Grand Mosque (Mecca) seized by Islamist extremists and held for 10 days.
  • 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran.
  • 1979 USSR invasion of Afghanistan.
  • 1979 Saudi Arabia severs diplomatic ties with Egypt after it makes peace with Israel.
  • 1980 Saudi Arabia takes full control of Aramco from the U.S.
  • 1981 Tentative agreement on Saudi-Iraqi neutral zone, finalized in 1983.
  • 1981 [May 25] Saudi Arabia is a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
  • 1982 King Khalid dies of a heart attack and is succeeded by his brother Fahd. Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud is named Crown Prince.
  • 1985 Annual Janandriyyah Folk Festival is inaugurated under the sponsorship of the Saudi Arabian National Guard.
  • 1986 [Nov] King Fahd adds title “Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques” to his name.
  • 1990 [Aug 2] Iraq invades Kuwait posing a threat to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia condemns the invasion and invites over 500,000 coalition troops into the Kingdom.
  • 1991 [Jan 17] Multi-national coalition led by U.S. launches Operation Desert Storm to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Saudi Arabian armed forces participate in military operations.
  • 1991 [Feb 28] Ceasefire announced in Gulf War.
  • 1992 The Saudi Basic Law is decreed by King Fahd.
  • 1993 The national Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Assembly) is established, composed of a chairman and 60 members.
  • 1994 Dissident Osama Bin Laden is stripped of his Saudi citizenship.
  • 1995 [Nov 13] Car bomb at an American military training group headquarters [OPM-SANG] kills six, including 5 U.S. personnel, and wounds 60.
  • 1995 [Nov 29] King Fahd suffers stroke.  Crown Prince Abdullah assumes role as de facto regent of Saudi Arabia.
  • 2001 [Sep 11] Al Qaeda terrorists hijack four aircraft in the U.S. and strike the World Trade Center towers, the Pentagon and crash an airliner in Shanksville, PA.  The terrorists include 15 Saudi men out of 19 hijackers, sparking years of tension between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia.
  • 2005 [Feb 10] Saudi men cast ballots in Municipal Council elections, first voting since 1963. [SUSRIS]
  • 2005 [Aug 1] King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud dies in Riyadh.  His half-brother Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud assumes the throne.
  • 2005 [Dec 11] Saudi Arabia accession into World Trade Organization (WTO). [SUSRIS]
  • 2006 [Jun 25] A terrorist truck bomb attack at a U.S. military dormitory in Khobar, Eastern Province, kills 19 Americans, wounds 372 of many nationalities.
  • 2006 [Oct 20] The Allegiance Institution (Succession) Law is issued, establishing a procedure for determining succession to the throne in Saudi Arabia.
  • 2009 King Abdullah introduced a series of reforms in the judiciary, armed forces and various ministries to modernize; he replaced senior individuals in judiciary and religious police and appointed the country’s first female deputy minister.
  • 2011 [Oct 22] Crown Prince Sultan dies following lengthy illness.
  • 2011 [Oct 27] Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud is named Crown Prince by his half-brother, King Abdullah.  Prince Nayef retains title as Minister of Interior.

[Timeline being updated.. check back]

Sources:
SUSRIS.com
“Culture and Customs of Saudi Arabia,” David E. Long